Abstract:Ad-hoc network is constructed by a group of mobile nodes upon a wireless network interface. As routing is the major concern in today’s scenario, different routing protocols are proposed e.g., DSR, AODV, TORA, .etc. These protocols works only with the assumption that when source and sink nodes are present in same network. In this paper a new approach is proposed in which the source and sink node are present in two separate different networks. This approach has been evaluated on three different parameters and compare with the existing DSR and these parameters are throughput, packet drop-count, and packet receive.
Abstract:Pakistan like other developing economies has adopted trade liberalization policy to integrate her to the global economy and undertake fiscal reforms to be able to complete her trade liberalization programs. Pakistan has reduced its tariffs in the economic history and efforts have been made to recover the fiscal cost of the trade liberlisation in the country. The objective of present study is to explore the fiscal cost of trade liberlisation in Pakistan. Using data 1951-2015 of tax revenues of Pakistan and identified 11 episodes of tariff reductions in the economic history of the country and consider whether Pakistan is able to recover those lost revenues through other tax resources. The findings of the study shows that although Pakistan being having lower tax capacity but the economy having tax friendly atmosphere and enough tax capacity to recover the loss of revenue with a short time period of 2 years and simultaneously within 10 years’ time period as well therefore it is needed to improve the performance of Tax collectors through tax reforms and fair and sound fiscal and monetary policies. It is imperative in the long run, Pakistan economy having a capacity to recover the loss of revenue resulted of the trade liberlisation policies. Therefore Trade liberlisation policies adopted by Pakistan are favorable for the economic welfare of the country. It is suggested to encourage trade liberalisation policies accompanied with continue supportive monetary and fiscal policies to improve environment and trade facilitation focusing CPEC (China-Pakistan Economic Corridor) routs as well.
Abstract:In the present study, the effect of a novel compound, sodium (Z)-4-oxo-4-p-tolyl-2-butenoate (SOTB), has been evaluated as a corrosion inhibitor for an antique bronze object. Stored or displayed archaeological bronze artifacts suffer from corrosion processes leading to destruction in uncontrolled environments; especially chloride ions. Consequently, developing novel and safe inhibitors to protect bronze is of a great importance. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of leaded bronze was evaluated in 3.5% NaCl, using the electrochemical techniques. The electrochemical study proved that the highest inhibition efficiency is achieved at 200 ppm of about 92%. The results indicated that the protection occurs via the adsorption of the SOTB on the metallic surface, and the adsorption energy has been calculated. The obtained promising results at 200 ppm are applied to four archaeological statues made of leaded bronze from Yemen from Gabal Al- Lawd site, Al-Gawf. The surface was subjected to SEM, EDX, IR and XRD to characterize the corrosion products and the effect of the inhibitor on the corrosion of leaded bronze objects.
Abstract:EFECT OF THE NUTRIENT CONCENTRATE IN RATION TO PERFORMANCE OF LOCAL CHICKENS \n\nAbun1, Tuti WIDJASTUTI1, Kiki HAETAMI2, and Rachmat WIRADIMADJA1\n\n1Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jalan Raya Bandung-Sumedang KM. 21, 45363, Sumedang-West Java, Indonesia, (phone) +6222 7798241, (fax) +6222 7798212.\n2Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jalan Raya Bandung-Sumedang KM. 21, 45363, Indonesia, (phone) +6222 7798241, (fax) +6222 7798212.\n\nCorresponding author email: firstname.lastname@example.org; \nabun_hasbuna.fapet @ yahoo.co.id\n\n\nABSTRACT\nEfforts towards improving the quality of shrimp waste are through bioprocess using Bacillus licheniformis service, Lactobacillus sp. and Saccharomyces cereviseae, to obtain a quality product (Nutrient Concentrate) to meet the needs of local chickens nutrition. The objective of the study was to obtain an effective level of use of Nutrient Concentrate in the local chicken ration of the growth phase. Research using experimental method in laboratory. The experimental design used was a complete randomized design, consisting of 6 treatment rations (R0 = low protein ration (15%), R1 = Ransum containing 5% concentrated nutrient, R2 = Ration containing 10% concentrate nutrient R3 = Ration containing 15% nutrient Concentrate R4 = Ration contains 20% concentrate nutrient, and RS = high protein ration (18%)) and each is repeated 5 times. The data were analyzed by variance and the differences between treatments were tested by Duncan\'s multiple-range test. The results of the research were: (1) The best growth of local chickens (consumption of ration, weight gain, and ration efficiency) was given by ration containing 10% concentrate nutrient (15% ration protein) and equivalent of high protein ration (protein ration 18 %), and (2) Nutrient concentrates can be used up to 20% in a local chicken ration of growth phase without affecting chicken health (erythrocytes = 1.87-2.20 × 106, leukocytes = 29.08-37,72 × 103, and hematocrit = 30.80-33.80%).\n\nKeywords: Bioprocess, shrimp waste, concentrate nutrient, performance, local chicken.
Abstract:Buses are one of key communication channel between function units and inside memory blocks of processors to deliver data or commands. Advancement, if the jobs are executed by multiprocessor systems, the bus management is very important and it is depended by the arbitration strategy. In this paper, we issued the methodology of bus traffic, fixed priority ambition, that based system-on-chip and to combine to two DLX processors both having 32-bit and to be emulated in ARM SoC (System-on-Chip) Designer simulation tools. For convenience control the traffic scheme among cores, we accomplished a fixed priority arbiter. Through the bus race experiment, we obviously obtained the follows result while the duty times are increasing, but the numbers of bus collusion are not obviously grown. The results are very valid while multi-cores designing.
Abstract:In conservation processes, the application of low temperatures has been recognised as a reliable treatment for the preservation of food. In this work, the thermal denaturation behaviour of the main proteins of raw, thawed and vacuum freeze-dried pork meat was analysed by modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC). Meat protein extracts (myosin, actin and collagen) at 48 h post-slaughter were used as a reference. Among the changes observed, the denaturation temperatures of the main meat proteins did not vary significantly (P < 0.05). Structural changes were observed in the values of reversible Cp. Myosin denatures in the interval between 53 to 55 °C, actin between 76 and 79 °C, and the sarcoplasmic proteins and collagen between 63 and 66 °C, with higher enthalpy and maximum transition temperatures for collagen and actin in freeze-dried samples with a greater activation energy for myosin and collagen denaturation affected by the ice crystal formation in the slow freezing process.
Abstract:This paper is to show, describe and study then optimize the application of information technology in the process of production of steel pipes. An example representing a new private sector steel pipes manufacture in Algeria has been focused; an amazing progress has been shielded. The automation will help an organization to find out optimal and effective production process. It also helps to improve process, restructure process and make the entire process so robust that it can manage the conflict and according to plant or technical changes, it can trigger some subsequence process which will be effective to survive in such volatile environment.
Abstract:The X-ray Diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis use to determine the structural and elastic properties of nickel-zinc doped lithium ferrite with chemical formula Ni1-xZnx-2yLiyFe2+yO4 where (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) and (y = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04) which preparation by sol-gel method. Lattice constant (a), crystallite size and cation distribution calculated from XRD. FTIR measurement exhibit two absorption bands (1 and 2) around 400-800 cm-1 confirms the existence of tetrahedral and octahedral sites of ferrite. Force constant, elastic wave velocity, bulk modulus and young\'s modulus also reported. The force constant for A-site is larger than for B-site which vary between (KA=131.6 to 145.5 N/m) and (KB = 97.8 to 102.3 N/m) where can be found the values of elastic constant for nanoparticle is agreement with those of bulk material.
Abstract:Purpose\nProstate cancer is one of the leading malignancies affecting human male population worldwide. In this study, we identified differentially expressed genes, microRNAs (miRNAs) using large number of publically available heterogeneous datasets generated using high-throughput sequencing (NGS) technologies from prostate cancer and normal tissues. Targets of selected miRNAs were predicted using state of the art target prediction methods.\n\nMethods\nDifferential expression analysis was performed on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Level 3 gene and miRNA expression datasets to identify differentially expressed, up and down-regulated genes and miRNAs in prostate cancer. Later inversely expressing target DEGs of 10 highly up and down-regulated miRNAs (DEMirs) were predicted using target prediction methods. Regulatory networks summarizing the regulatory links among the DEMirs and DEGs were created using Cytoscape.\n\nResults\nExpression analysis results led to identification of 844 up-regulated and 1123 down-regulated genes in prostate cancer while 101 up and, 30 down-regulated miRNAs in prostate cancerous tissues as compared to normal cells. These highly up regulated gene and, miRNAs can act as non-invasive biomarkers for prostate cancer detection. Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed highly up-regulated genes in prostate cancer were involved in biological process associated with cell division. Highly up-regulated miRNAs in prostate cancer miR-483-3p, miR-483-5p etc. were found to be targeting tumor, metastasis suppressor genes.\n\nConclusion\nWe identified a molecular expression signature and pathway regulatory mechanisms in prostate cancer with potential diagnostic and therapeutic value. These findings may extend our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying prostate cancer and help prevent, diagnose, treatment of the disease.
Abstract:Abstract. If (X, τ ) is a topological space we denote by ¯τ the smallest Alexandroff\ntopology on X containing τ . In this paper we introduce the concepts of regular ideal\nand we characterize those topological spaces which are either, regular or normal, via\nregular ideals. Characterization of Alexandroff, P spaces, T1/2, T1/4, R0 and ωR0\nspaces are also given.\nKey words and phrases: Alexandroff spaces, P spaces, T1/2\n, T1/4\n, R0 and ωR0 spaces