Abstract:Manufacturing technuiques and principles for determining the resistance of large section CFA piles with a “hard core” is considered. The methods for determining averaged diameters of CFA piles and bearing capacity on ground strength are given. The values of calculated resistance of soils under the lower end and on lateral surfaces of averaged diameter of large section CFA piles with a “hard core” are cited. Carrying capacities of large-section CFA piles with a “hard core” on the ground in the form of averaged diameter are determined and compared with carrying capacity of precast piles of section 30x30, same that of a “hard core” with the same length and ground conditions..
Abstract:The Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) are linear block codes, which are Shannon Limit codes. These codes are attained least error floors of data bits for data transfer applications used in communication systems. However, the proposed LDPC codes are more beneficial than Turbo codes because of reduction in the decoding complexity and detection of the errors in less cycle time. This results the reduction of decoding time, low decoding latency and as well as least error floors in communication, when the transmitted data contains multiple error bits. This paper is proposed to represent the majority logic decoding/detecting of LDPC codes. This paper proposes the Generation of Generator and Parity Check matrices for both Binary and Non-Binary LDPC Codes. Here, the proposed Majority Logic Decoder /Detector (MLDD) is Hard decision decrypting scheme and it uses majority logic decoding based on the data transmission and reception in communication channel. This paper also elaborates the effective implementation of encoding and decoding of LDPC Codes.
Abstract:In this paper, we prove the regularity for solutions of semilinear differential equations involving p-Laplacian in the strong sense and investigate the continuity of the solution mapping from initial data and forcing term to trajectories.
Abstract:Biomass is currently considered as a third largest energy source worldwide. Biomass in a powder form is shown to burn like a gas and, in turn, it could be used as a fuel in internal combustion engines (ICEs). Current record models for biomass powder combustion in literature do not incorporate advanced kinetics model for the pyrolysis process in such fast heat working conditions, e.g., flame working conditions in ICEs. The present study aims at developing an appropriate modelling tools to simulate the fast pyrolysis behaviour of biomass powder in ICEs, e.g., combustion working conditions; such pyrolysis models are compulsory to simulate powder biomass flames precisely in the ICEs. The biomass powder in the current study is non-spherical shape with typical micro-scale size particles of range 25-1400 m in diameter and 80-6000 m in length. Different mechanisms for powder biomass pyrolysis both in parallel and series schemes were proposed including the devolatilization kinetics and the rate constants. During biomass pyrolysis process, tar is formed by a rate of 57 wt.%, and, accordingly, tar formation and cracking sub-processes are also modelled in the current study. The proposed pyrolysis models were tested and validated against experimental data and results showed good agreement. The results showed that the tar is formed and cracked between the temperature range between 700 and 1050 K.
Abstract:This research was conducted in 2016 at the Research Area of Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Çukurova University, Adana for the influence of harvesting period and cutting hour on yield and quality in Thymus vulgaris L. Field trial was arranged in randomized complete block design, with three replications. Thyme seeds were sown on December 17, 2015 in the green house. Seedlings were transferred to field at March 31, 2016. The plants were harvested three times at one month interval (first: August 22, second: September, 23 and third: October 21, 2016). Cutting hours were 9:00 am, 12:30 am and 16:00 pm. In the study, plant height (22.7 – 32,8cm), drug herbage yield (39 - 156 kg da?1) and essential oil content (1.54- 1.88%) were determined. The highest essential oil content was obtained as a mean 1.88 % from the first harvest at 16:00 pm cutting. The lowest value was obtained from second harvest at 9:00 am cutting time.
Abstract:In recent years, many extreme ice and snow disasters occurred in China. In order to study the physical and mechanical properties and the damage law of high-slope rock mass located in the part of the area under freeze-thaw cycles, marble samples were collected in the Daye iron mine in Huangshi city of Hubei Province, and the freeze-thaw cycle compression tests were carried out in a total of 30 freeze-thaw cycles. After 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 freeze-thaw cycles, the quality, volume, wave velocity and SEM image of the samples were measured, and the uniaxial compressive failure tests were also carried out for these samples. To analyze the physical and mechanical properties of rock samples, the relationship between the freeze-thaw damage and the number of freeze-thaw cycles and the relationship between the freeze-thaw damage and the freeze-thaw temperature were analyzed. Meanwhile, based on the theory of significance analysis, the effects of the number of freeze-thaw cycles and the freeze-thaw temperature on the physical and mechanical properties of marble were studied. Research results show that the influence of freeze-thaw cycles on the physical and mechanical properties of marble was significant, and the effect of the freezing temperature was weak. With the increase of the number of freeze-thaw cycles, the mass loss, the loss rate of wave velocity and the strength loss rate and freeze-thaw damage of marble specimens increase, but the elastic modulus and the freeze-thaw coefficient decrease. The freeze-thaw cycle has a positive impact on the microscopic damage and failure of rock mass. With the decrease of the freeze-thaw temperature, the mass loss increase, the strength loss rate and the freeze-thaw coefficient decrease. The influences of other parameters are insignificant.
Abstract:The optimization design plays an important role for obtaining successful composite structures with high efficient and safe uses of materials. In addition, submersibles and submarines are particularly weight sensitive. So, this work presents the optimization of sandwich composite pressure hull of submarine in order to increase buckling load capacity, minimize drag force and weight/displacement ratio. The multi-objective optimization is performed using ANSYS parametric design language (APDL). The model of the pressure hull has been developed using sandwich construction having composite face sheets and foam core. The constraints based on failure strength of the pressure hull, incorporating both Tsai-Wu and maximum stress failure criteria for predicting the first-ply failure. The fiber orientation angle and the thickness in each layer, the radii of the ellipse, the ring beams and the stringers dimensions are taken as design variables. A parametric study is conducted to study the effect of design variables up on objectives functions and constraints.
Abstract:Pharmaceutical industry has an essential role in eliminating the deadly diseases and to control the life-threatening ailments in humans and animals. Research and development in the pharmaceutical field has entered in new era where new technologies have been evolved which predicts availability of new remedies in future with more promising results. Continuity of the innovative medicine gives hope for longer life with better quality. This study aims to evaluate the innovative anticancer drugs competition with equivalent generic drugs in the domestic market and status of their primary pharmaceutical patents. The results of this study indicate that various anticancer drugs did not have generic drugs in competition although their primary pharmaceutical patents have been expired long ago. Stakeholders should make cohesive policies for early entries of generic drugs when pharmaceutical patents expire to ensure access of anticancer drugs at affordable prices in Pakistan..
Abstract:Social networks usually incorporate activities and interactions between actors that change regularly and vary with time. Consequently, the basic structure of these networks is dynamic and is progressively growing. Exploring how the structure of these networks changes over time offers perceptions into their evolution patterns, issues that produce the changes, and eventually forecast the future structure of these networks. One of the main structural properties of networks is their community structure – set of nodes highly connected between each other. Since networks change over time, their underlying communities change as well, i.e. they are having frequently nodes and links that appear and disappear over time; consequently, those communities may expand and contract over time. The main goal of this paper is to suggest a new and formal framework for identifying communities incrementally in social networks that change over time. We demonstrate the effectiveness and potential of our proposed framework by evaluating it using real datasets and comparing it with two previous methods. The results confirm that our proposed approach is more powerful at identifying resistant communities over time.