Abstract:Ad-hoc network is constructed by a group of mobile nodes upon a wireless network interface. As routing is the major concern in today’s scenario, different routing protocols are proposed e.g., DSR, AODV, TORA, .etc. These protocols works only with the assumption that when source and sink nodes are present in same network. In this paper a new approach is proposed in which the source and sink node are present in two separate different networks. This approach has been evaluated on three different parameters and compare with the existing DSR and these parameters are throughput, packet drop-count, and packet receive.
Abstract:Pakistan like other developing economies has adopted trade liberalization policy to integrate her to the global economy and undertake fiscal reforms to be able to complete her trade liberalization programs. Pakistan has reduced its tariffs in the economic history and efforts have been made to recover the fiscal cost of the trade liberlisation in the country. The objective of present study is to explore the fiscal cost of trade liberlisation in Pakistan. Using data 1951-2015 of tax revenues of Pakistan and identified 11 episodes of tariff reductions in the economic history of the country and consider whether Pakistan is able to recover those lost revenues through other tax resources. The findings of the study shows that although Pakistan being having lower tax capacity but the economy having tax friendly atmosphere and enough tax capacity to recover the loss of revenue with a short time period of 2 years and simultaneously within 10 years’ time period as well therefore it is needed to improve the performance of Tax collectors through tax reforms and fair and sound fiscal and monetary policies. It is imperative in the long run, Pakistan economy having a capacity to recover the loss of revenue resulted of the trade liberlisation policies. Therefore Trade liberlisation policies adopted by Pakistan are favorable for the economic welfare of the country. It is suggested to encourage trade liberalisation policies accompanied with continue supportive monetary and fiscal policies to improve environment and trade facilitation focusing CPEC (China-Pakistan Economic Corridor) routs as well.
Abstract:EFECT OF THE NUTRIENT CONCENTRATE IN RATION TO PERFORMANCE OF LOCAL CHICKENS \n\nAbun1, Tuti WIDJASTUTI1, Kiki HAETAMI2, and Rachmat WIRADIMADJA1\n\n1Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jalan Raya Bandung-Sumedang KM. 21, 45363, Sumedang-West Java, Indonesia, (phone) +6222 7798241, (fax) +6222 7798212.\n2Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jalan Raya Bandung-Sumedang KM. 21, 45363, Indonesia, (phone) +6222 7798241, (fax) +6222 7798212.\n\nCorresponding author email: email@example.com; \nabun_hasbuna.fapet @ yahoo.co.id\n\n\nABSTRACT\nEfforts towards improving the quality of shrimp waste are through bioprocess using Bacillus licheniformis service, Lactobacillus sp. and Saccharomyces cereviseae, to obtain a quality product (Nutrient Concentrate) to meet the needs of local chickens nutrition. The objective of the study was to obtain an effective level of use of Nutrient Concentrate in the local chicken ration of the growth phase. Research using experimental method in laboratory. The experimental design used was a complete randomized design, consisting of 6 treatment rations (R0 = low protein ration (15%), R1 = Ransum containing 5% concentrated nutrient, R2 = Ration containing 10% concentrate nutrient R3 = Ration containing 15% nutrient Concentrate R4 = Ration contains 20% concentrate nutrient, and RS = high protein ration (18%)) and each is repeated 5 times. The data were analyzed by variance and the differences between treatments were tested by Duncan\'s multiple-range test. The results of the research were: (1) The best growth of local chickens (consumption of ration, weight gain, and ration efficiency) was given by ration containing 10% concentrate nutrient (15% ration protein) and equivalent of high protein ration (protein ration 18 %), and (2) Nutrient concentrates can be used up to 20% in a local chicken ration of growth phase without affecting chicken health (erythrocytes = 1.87-2.20 × 106, leukocytes = 29.08-37,72 × 103, and hematocrit = 30.80-33.80%).\n\nKeywords: Bioprocess, shrimp waste, concentrate nutrient, performance, local chicken.
Abstract:Buses are one of key communication channel between function units and inside memory blocks of processors to deliver data or commands. Advancement, if the jobs are executed by multiprocessor systems, the bus management is very important and it is depended by the arbitration strategy. In this paper, we issued the methodology of bus traffic, fixed priority ambition, that based system-on-chip and to combine to two DLX processors both having 32-bit and to be emulated in ARM SoC (System-on-Chip) Designer simulation tools. For convenience control the traffic scheme among cores, we accomplished a fixed priority arbiter. Through the bus race experiment, we obviously obtained the follows result while the duty times are increasing, but the numbers of bus collusion are not obviously grown. The results are very valid while multi-cores designing.
Abstract:In conservation processes, the application of low temperatures has been recognised as a reliable treatment for the preservation of food. In this work, the thermal denaturation behaviour of the main proteins of raw, thawed and vacuum freeze-dried pork meat was analysed by modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC). Meat protein extracts (myosin, actin and collagen) at 48 h post-slaughter were used as a reference. Among the changes observed, the denaturation temperatures of the main meat proteins did not vary significantly (P < 0.05). Structural changes were observed in the values of reversible Cp. Myosin denatures in the interval between 53 to 55 °C, actin between 76 and 79 °C, and the sarcoplasmic proteins and collagen between 63 and 66 °C, with higher enthalpy and maximum transition temperatures for collagen and actin in freeze-dried samples with a greater activation energy for myosin and collagen denaturation affected by the ice crystal formation in the slow freezing process.
Abstract:This paper is to show, describe and study then optimize the application of information technology in the process of production of steel pipes. An example representing a new private sector steel pipes manufacture in Algeria has been focused; an amazing progress has been shielded. The automation will help an organization to find out optimal and effective production process. It also helps to improve process, restructure process and make the entire process so robust that it can manage the conflict and according to plant or technical changes, it can trigger some subsequence process which will be effective to survive in such volatile environment.
Abstract:Hemidesmus indicus belongs to the family Apocynaceae, which is used widely as an important medicinal plant. The extracts from the root are used as a coolant and a blood-purifier and is used in many forms. In the present study, emphasis was given on phytochemical screening of root extract and to select an elite species of the above plant with more number of phytochemicals. The plant material was collected from six geographical locations viz. Mahabubnagar, Warangal, Nalgonda, Nizamabad, Karimnagar and Adilabad, which are with different edaphic and climatic conditions of Telangana State, India are designated as site I to VI respectively. Fourteen phytochemicals were tested for their maximum and minimum presence and the extractions were prepared in aqueous, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and chloroform. The root extracts of plants collected from site-VI are showing maximum presence of phytochemicals than the other five sites. Production of some phytochemicals in one site and absence of the same in another site may be due to environmental induced production of certain phytochemicals or may be due to activation or suppression of certain genes producing the phytochemicals in particular environmental conditions. Hence, out of the plants collected from the above six sites, the plants of site-VI can be used to extract maximum number of phytochemicals.\\n The present study helps future researchers and the academicians to collect the plant which yield more number of phytochemicals and further it opens a new era of research to quantify and extract the pure compound from the above site plants.
Abstract:Today, entrepreneurial skills are considered as the appropriate strategy for the expanding of productivity and overall development of any organization. Some scholars believe that the entrepreneurial skills, promote efficiency in different levels in organizations. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between organizational justice and organizational commitment with entrepreneurial skills in Urmia industrial Estate’s Companies. The results showed that there is a significant relationship between procedural, distributive and interactional components of organizational justice and affective, normative and continuance dimensions of organizational commitment with entrepreneurial skills. Regression analysis also showed that procedural and distributive components of organizational justice are better predictor for entrepreneurial skills and affective and continuance dimensions of organizational commitment are better predictor for entrepreneurial skills than others. The results of this research can be significant and useful for the owners of industries, firms, small and medium businesses, economic planners and managers.
Abstract:This paper is an attempt to extend the empirical research on the capital structure theory to a post-transition economy and to determine if there are any factors that could be linked to the behaviour of the companies with respect to their selection of the sources of financing.\\nThe study is based on a sample of joint-stock companies, most frequently traded on the Belgrade Stock Exchange, and using their financial data for a period of 6 years, it applies a panel regression model. The regression results show that the leverage of the analyzed companies is positively related to their size and inversely related to the tangibility of their assets, profitability and the effective corporate tax rate. Surprisingly, no relation has been found between the amounts of fixed-asset investments made in the previous period and the use of debt.\\nThese results do not give sufficient support for any of the capital structure theories, but the closest match is some form of a modified pecking order.
Abstract:Tunnel-form buildings are considered to be a type of high seismic safety building. Although this structural system has an important seismic advantage, it also has some disadvantages, especially in acoustic and thermal comfort. In this study, experimental studies have been conducted on reinforced concrete tunnel form members such as shear walls and slabs produced with plastic material having circular sections. In this scope, research has been performed on the feasibility of using plastic balls with 6 cm diameter in reinforced concrete systems. Reinforced concrete members have been produced with and without balls to analyze the structural behavior under static and quasi-static loading and to investigate the thermal performance and sound absorption behavior of the members. In the study, structural parameters have been determined for reinforced concrete members such as slabs and shear walls produced with and without balls to discover the feasibility of the research and discuss the findings comparatively. The results obtained from the experimental studies show that plastic balls used in reinforced concrete with suitable positions do not significantly decrease strength but improve the thermal and acoustic features.