Abstract:Teaching foreign languages through reading with the consideration of cognitive differences in information acquisition is a means through which the development of students is advanced. The problem requires elaboration. The authors are interested in applying cognitive linguistics achievements to devise some strategies of effective foreign languages learning/teaching to facilitate the process of information acquisition through reading. The purpose of the study is to raise the awareness of the existence of two types of cognitive style learners to elaborate assignments to develop competences to bridge the cognitive differentiation gap. The chosen research methods include descriptive-analytical method based on the necessity to study theoretical works of theoretical works of domestic and foreign scholars; comparative-contrastive analysis helps to discover the cognitive similarities and differences between the convergent cognitive style learners and divergent cognitive style leaners to balance them. Convergent cognitive style learners are most effective in solving one possible task; divergent cognitive style learners are creative and are efficient when they are offered alternative variants. As convergent and divergent style, learners require different strategies applied to the process of extracting the necessary information certain assignments are offered from the text to overcome the cognitive differences of the learners. In conclusion, it should be stated that although learners are born with specific cognitive styles, they could be redirected due to a set of certain assignments. A modern textbook and teaching methodology should meet the requirements of the present day achievements of psycholinguistics and cognitive science in the field of language learning.
Abstract:The present work was established to study the impact of various rates from chemical fertilizer on the activity concentration of radionuclide in sandy loam soil and sugar beet. This work was performed at the cultivate of Nuclear Research Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Tamyah, El Fayoum, Egypt during the winter season 2016/2017 with a randomized complete block design (RCBD). The specific activity of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in irrigation water, fertilizer, soil, and sugar beet roots have been determined by High purity germanium detector. The specific activity of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in soil samples ranged from 19.035- 25.101, 29.403 - 45.816 and 196.68 Bq kg-1 to 294.25 Bq kg-1, respectively, while in fresh sugar beet root, the specific activity of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K are 0.606-3.835, 0.000-6.700 and 94.730-206.16 Bq kg-1 respectively. Transfer factor was also calculated and found to be range from 0.025-0.186, 0.00016-0.209 and 0.406-0.934 for 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K respectively.
Abstract:Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death, worldwide. WHO reported, approximately 17.9 million people died in 2016. Avicenna provided marvelous contribution to the medical field since 16th century and his special concern was on cardiac drugs. In his book ‘A treatise on Cardiac Drugs’ contained 63 medicines for heart and its ailments. His concepts gave certain connectivity to heart diseases with psychological aspect together. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate scientifically how Avicenna’s cardiac drugs potential to cardio and psychological or neuroprotective activity. Deer musk, Silk cocoon, Saffron, Cinnamon and Basil were selected to this systematic review as they were mentioned as cardiac drugs. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched to filter the articles until 2019. PubMed was searched English language articles using the keywords ‘Botanical name’ OR ‘common name of the drug’ with ‘heart’ OR ‘cardio’ OR ‘neuro protector’. Mostly, animal and a few laboratory studies disclosed the potentiality of these drugs with the accepted modern parameters as those drugs potentiate to both cardio and neuro protective activity. One human trial was found here was a huge gap. However, these drugs were used for cardiac ailments during 16th to 20th century and hence these drugs can be considered as supplement to enhance the treatment effectively.
Abstract:Radioactive materials are in use not only for medical purposes but also it is used for industrial and research and teaching purposes. ICRP (the International Commission on Radiological Protection) certifies three types of exposure situations these are planning, emergency, and existing ones. In the present study contamination of individual could be recognized as planning or emergency situation according to the severity of the case and according to integral dose received by individuals. The term individual refer to worker, member of the public and patient. The most used isotopes in medicine and research purposes are radio iodine radioactive material due to its short half life.\nTwelve radiation workers were monitored and results indicated that they are contaminated by radio iodine. This Study concern radiation dosimetry around contaminated individual includes dose limit, dose assessment and the persons at risk. The aim of study through some light on integral external dose D (∞) calculation to a co-worker, a family member and others around the contaminated individual based on theoretical models and measurements. After all, we try to answer some of the discussions of radiation workers about the risk of exposure to their families as a result of contact with them and to what extent can reduce the radiation exposure for their families especially children and pregnant women.
Abstract:In this paper, we address the problem of automatic continuity of homomorphisms in some topological non associative -algebras. To do this, we introduce and study on a non-associative algebra equipped with an involution σ a notion we call σ-semi-simplicity. It is based on the study of certain sided ideals called σ-ideals
Abstract:The enamine synthesis was from two starting materials were acetylacetone and dibenzoylmethane, the NMR spectrum was clear of enamine from acetylacetone their appearance coupling between nitrogen atom and enolic hydrogen (3JN-H =51 Hz). The NMR spectrum of enamine from dibenzoylmethane didn’t appear any coupling eno-form and keto-form because of the steric hindrance of aromatic ring. The study has involved preparations of two starting materials and two enamine preparations from starting materials as ligands, they are as IUPAC names (Z)-4-aminopent-3-en-2-one, acetyl acetone, 1,3-diphenylpropane-1,3-dione and (Z)-3-amino-1,3-diphenylprop-2-en-1-one.The study also proved the molecular structures of the metal complexes of the acetylacetone, dibenzoylmethane and prepared reagents (enamine), they are eight complexes preparation their tetrahedral and octahedral, all ligands combine with metals as enol form. In this study, also a DFT calculation for some properties of (Z)-4-aminopent-3-en-2-one and (Z)-3-amino-1,3-diphenylprop-2-en-1-one has been carried out. The study scanned charge Mulliken, HOMO and LUMO, dipole moment and total energy of two the synthesis ligands.
Abstract:Liver is an important organ in the body however, the modern diet pattern including fast and fatty foods, certain medicines etc causes liver tissue damage and is a threat to life. Certain natural spices have protective potentiality on the liver. This narrative review focuses mainly on the clinical evidence of the intervention of spices on liver protective potentiality. Clinical evidences are the most updated, best evidence for effective health care. PubMed was searched using the keywords ‘Botanical name of the spice’ OR ‘extract of spices’ name’ OR ‘common name of the spice’ OR ‘main active ingredient of the spice’ with ‘liver enzymes’ OR ‘liver protector’ OR ‘hepato protector’ OR ‘non – alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)’ up to 2019 and only English language articles were considered. In this review, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Curcuma longa, Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Nigella sativa and Elettaria cardamomum clinically established their potentiality as liver protectors. Only animal studies were available to show the potentiality for Myristica fragrans, Piper nigrum, Syzygium aromaticum and Coriandrum sativum and hence, they were not included. Review suggests that the daily use of spices should be increased as our ancestors did in the past. Also, the number of human trials should be increased.
Abstract:Daruparpatadi decoction has been used extensively in Sri-Lanka for treatment of a number of respiratory tract ailments. No studies have examined the bioactive compounds present in this decoction. the aim of the study was to assess and compare the phytochemicals present in the hot aqueous, hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of the Decoction of the Daruparpatadi. Hot aqueous, hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of the Decoction of the Daruparpatadi were prepared and all the preliminary phytochemical test were done with standard methods. A wide variety of pharmacologically active phytochemical compounds such as higher amount of tannins and phenolic compounds, terpenoids and steroids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, carbohydrates, amino acids, anthaquinone glycosides and resins were found in this hot aqueous and ethanol extract of the Daruparpatadi. Alkaloids found higher in the ethanol extract. Saponins were less in all four extracts comparing with the other phytochemicals. The qualitative phyto-compounds of this decoction confirm the use for various ailments such as asthma, phlegmatic fever, colds and tuberculosis by the practitioners. Further, the quantitative analysis of these phyto-compounds will be an interesting area for further study to exploit the other biomedical applications.
Abstract:In the present paper, we have developed a new methodology and solution procedure for solving stochastic multi-choice bi-level programming problems taking the right hand side parameters of the constraints in both first level and second level as multi-choice parameters but constraints and objective function coefficients in both leaders and followers as exponential random variables with known means. In order to solve the proposed model, equivalent deterministic non-linear bi-level programming models are established by using binary variable transformation technique. Then the models are solved by using KKT approach and obtained the optimal solution. A numerical example is constituted to illustrate the utility of the proposed methodology and solution procedure.
Abstract:Obesity is a global problem all over the world and the health problems associated with obesity are numerous. Dietary factors are the major modifiable factors by which many of the external influencing factors for the excess weight gain can be minimized. The aim of the study is to explore the dietary factors which influence on the excess weight gain in females. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the National Ayurveda Teaching Hospital, Borella. Data were collected from 247 female participants in a pre-structured questionnaire by interviewing subjects through face to face interview. ANOVA and multiple regression models were used to analyze and predict factors which influence to the obesity. “Dietary amount” variable showed a significant positive relationship with the BMI at the level p < 0.01. This depicts that the amount of food consumed is directly proportional to the BMI. Further, in the present study, excess eating habits and excess consumption of non-vegetarian diet were shown as significant influencing factors to obesity. Also excess consumption of “samba” rice and excess usage of oil were also considered as influencing factors to obesity. Further, another noteworthy observation is that most of the “Kekulu” and “Nadu” rice consumers were overweight, but not obese. When compared to the correlation between additional eating and obesity, the correlation between banana eating and obesity is negligible. Study concluded that implementation and encouragement for healthy eating habits and appropriate intervention to promote physical activity to diminish the increasing percentages of the obesity in the society.