Title: First record of the Vairimorpha ceranae infection from Bombus terrestris L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Turkey

Abstract:The current study aimed to determine the natural pathogen and parasites of the Bombus terrestris L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Turkey. During 2019 and 2020, the commercial and wild populations of B. terrestris were investigated in this survey. In the studies, natural microsporidiosis was detected in commercial B. terrestris populations. Fresh oval spores were measured as 4.91 ± 0.48 (6.12 – 3.73) μm in length and 2.54 ± 0.31 (3.27 – 1.88) μm in width (n=60). Both SSU rRNA and RPB1 gene sequences of the current microsporidium were top hits with the Vairimorpha (Nosema) ceranae isolates. While the SSU rRNA gene sequence matched with the Vairimorpha ceranae clone NCS44 (LC510228) isolated from the Apis cerana japonica at 99.24% identity (100% coverage), the RPB1 gene sequence was matched with the Vairimorpha ceranae isolate 1994 (KJ473287) at 99.02% identity (100% coverage). Based on the light microscopy and molecular phylogeny the current microsporidium was a new isolate of the V. ceranae and named herein as Vairimorpha ceranae Tr-07.




Title: Impact of the climatic change on the distribution of the fire salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata

Abstract:Although the fire salamander species, Salamandra infraimmaculata, relatively distributed in a broad area in the Middle east, it lives in a narrow area in the southeast and south Anatolia in Turkey. The species whose habitats are decreasing day by day is classified in the category NT in IUCN and the population trend is decreasing. Within the scope of this study, a model was created with the existing locality records of the species using ecological niche modeling. As a result of this model, the current and future distribution of the species were compared. The results obtained from the analyzes made within the scope of this study showed that the current probable distribution of the species coincides with the existing locality records. However, for possible climatic change scenarios, the possible future distribution of the species will be negatively affected by the increase in the greenhouse gas effect, the change in the amount of carbon dioxide and the increase of many harmful gas concentrations in the atmosphere. If all four climate scenarios proposed in this study in the future occur sequentially, the species will have to limit or change its range, and even become will be extinct in some areas. Species conservation action plans should be initiated, and local governments should take necessary measures to prevent this from happening.




Title: A New Vairimorpha Isolate of the Mediterranean Flour Moth, Ephestiae kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

Abstract:In this study, a new Vairimorpha isolate was defined non-Vairimorpha necatrix strains from Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Turkey (Malatya). Infection was determined in the host\'s hindgut, both larval and adult stages. Two types spore originated from the polymorphic sporulation was detected during the observations. While the binucleate ovocylindrical fresh spores were measured 4.38 ± 0.31 μm (5.09–3.77 μm, n = 100) in length and 2.80 ± 0.18 μm (3.21–2.43 μm, n=100) in width, the ovoid meiospores were measured as 3.50 ± 0.46 μm (4.98–2.51 μm, n = 100) in length and 2.02 ± 0.28 μm (2.94–1.50 μm, n=100) in width. The multilocus genetic analyses based on SSU rRNA and RPB1 genes were carried for determining the phylogenetic status of the current microsporidium. In ML and BI trees, the current microsporidium was separated into a different branch from V. necatrix strains within the Vairimorpha clade




Title: EFFECT OF SECURITY STRATEGIES ON PROFITABILITY OF SELECTED DEPOSIT MONEY BANKS IN LAGOS STATE NIGERIA

Abstract:The banking industry is considered one of many businesses that have taken advantage of the Internet and IT development by introducing internet banking services to their customers and this bring many benefits to banks and customers. There have been serious threats to the details of customers of banks as there have been an increase in unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification or destruction of customer information leading to cases of fraud and poor reputation and performance of several banks across the globe. One of the most challenging issues facing the banking industry currently is security. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of security strategies on profitability of selected deposit money banks in Lagos State, Nigeria. The population of this study was 433 employees in the IT department of the selected deposit money banks. Total enumeration of the 433 employees of the selected banks was considered. Structured and validated questionnaires were used for data collection. The reliability test yielded Cronbach’s alpha for the constructs ranges from 0.947 to 0.990. Data was analyzed using inferential statistics. The findings of this study revealed that security strategies dimensions had a significant effect on profitability of selected deposit money banks in Lagos State, Nigeria (Adj. R2 = 0.838, F(4, 291) = 383.804, p<0.05). The study concluded that security strategies affect profitability of selected deposit money banks in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study recommended that management of selected deposit money banks in Lagos State should ensure that they implement the right security strategies to avert security threats that could affect their profitability.




Title: ANALYSIS AND CHALLENGES OF INTRODUCING DIGITAL TAXATION IN EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES

Abstract:The article analyzes the introduction of digital taxation on the member states of the European Union. The digital economy is a collective term for all economic transactions that take place\nhappening on the Internet. It is also known as the Web economy or the Internet economy. With the advent of technology and the process of globalization digital and traditional economies merge into one. New ways of doing business in the virtual and digital world economy caused the emergence of a tax on digital services (hereinafter: digital tax). A solution is being sought internationally and globally, which is certainly a better and more systematic approach, however in this text we will see that states have decided to introduce a digital tax on their own.




Title: IRSAL E ALAQ (LEECH THERAPY) � A BLOODLETTING REGIMEN OF ILAJ BIT TADBEER

Abstract:Abstract\nUnani system of medicine is the most ancient systems of medicine which provide holistic approach to the Health and deals with the promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative aspects of healthcare. Treatment is adopted when prevention fails and disease occurs. It is mainly based upon Ilaj bil Zidd (Heterotherapy). Unani System of Medicine describes following modes of treatment: Ilaj bil Ghiza (Dietotherapy), Ilaj bil Dawa (Pharmacotherapy), Ilaj bit Tadbeer (Regimenal Therapy), Ilaj bil Yad (Surgery). However, the first preference of treatment is given to Regimenal therapy and diet, drugs and surgery are used only if required. Hence, in simple words, Ilaj bit Tadbeer may be described as a mode of treatment in Unani medicine which encompasses treatment through various regimens which are directed toward modification or correction of any abnormalities in Asbab e Sitta Zarooriyah. According to Unani system of Medicine, bloodletting is based on concept of Humoral imbalance. Their imbalance causes diseases, whereas restoration of the balance leads to health. According to Unani System of Medicine, majority of diseases are caused by endogenous factors by excessive accumulation of morbid humors. Bloodletting is a method of general evacuation. It removes the excessive quantity of humours present in the blood vessels. Bloodletting in the form of Fasd (Venesection), Irsal e Alaq (Leech therapy) and Hijama bish Shart (Cupping with scarification) is an essential part of Unani System of Medicine for surgical diseases. It has been utilized for preventive as well as therapeutic measures for thousands of years by ancient Unani physicians. Irsal e Alaq (Leech or Hirudo therapy) is a method of bloodletting which involves the withdrawal of blood in a considerable quantity from the body with the help of Leeches. It is actually a blood sucking process with the help of medicinal leeches for prevention and treatment of various diseases. The therapeutic application of this therapy is known from the time of extreme antiquity and is still alive in present health scenario.




Title: Production of B-glucans in cultivated mycelium in vitro and wild fruiting bodies of Lycoperdon perlatum

Abstract:The β-glucans of Basidiomycetes have shown activity as immunomodulators, anticancer, antitumor, among others. Due to this, in vitro culture for biomass production, bioactive metabolic extraction techniques, and identification techniques such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) are fundamental to control conditions for they production, especially of little-studied species with biotechnological potential such as Lycoperdon perlatum, a wild edible mushroom traditionally valued as a nutritious food with therapeutic and medicinal properties.The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the production of β-glucans from mycelium grown in vitro and from fruiting bodies of wild Lycoperdom perlatum. For this, the mycelium was cultured in vitro by liquid state fermentation (LSF) in an unconventional medium based on cornmeal, while wild fruiting bodies were collected from a high mountain forest with species of Pinus and Abies. The biomass of both fungal materials was dried and processed to extract the β-glucans by successive extraction in aqueous and alkaline solution. The extracts were subsequently purified and characterized by FTIR. Four precipitates were obtained from the dry biomass (DW), which agree with the vibrational mode of a spectrum of β-glucans in FTIR. The biomass obtained from the mycelium in vitro presented a fresh weight of 40.87 g with 96.50% of water content, while the fruiting bodies presented a fresh weight of 38.72 g and 84.89% of water content. The fractions obtained were four: an aqueous fraction of mycelium (FrAqM) with 1.40 g of β-glucans per 100 g of DW; an alkaline fraction of fruiting bodies (FrAqBF) with 2.36 g of β-glucans per 100 g of DW; an alkaline fraction of mycelium (FrAkM) with 10.11 g of β-glucans per 100 g of DW; and an alkaline fraction of fruiting bodies (FrAkBF) with 11.58 g of β-glucans per 100 g of DW. The FTIR spectrum of the four precipitates show the characteristic bands of a β-glucan, it is important to highlight that the alkaline fractions present the characteristic bands associated with proteins, so the glucans of these fractions could be coupled to a protein.




Title: STRATEGIC MARKETING PRACTICES AND MARKET SHARE OF SELECTED INSURANCE COMPANIES IN LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA

Abstract:This paper investigated the effect of strategic marketing practice (SMP) on market share ofselected Insurance companies in Lagos State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey researchdesign was used in the study. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey research design.The total population of the study is 1,980 management staffs of the selected Insurancecompanies operating in Lagos State, Nigeria. Sample size determination table developed byKrejcie and Morgan was used to determine the sample size of 731. Stratified randomsampling and proportionate sampling techniques were used to group the sample to definitecategories of top, middle and frontline managers for adequate representation. A validatedquestionnaire was administered and a total of 598 retrieved for analysis. The data collectedwere analyzed using structural equation modeling. Findings revealed that that there waspositive and significant effect of strategic marketing practices (strategic market orientation,service delivery, marketing ethics and social media marketing) on market share of selectedInsurance companies in Lagos State, Nigeria (R2 =0.45, p<0.05). Therefore, it wasrecommended that insurance companies should embrace strategic marketing practices as akey strategic path in improving its overall market share.




Title: Six months monomer elution from silorane and two dental composites with high-molecular-weight monomers in the polymer matrix composition

Abstract:Objective The process of elution of unreacted monomers from dental resin composites can adversely affect their biocompatibility and longevity. One of the main factors, related to the elution process is the resin matrix composition. Nearly over the last decade, more successful work has been done on changing the polymer matrix of resin composites, dictated mainly by the idea of reducing the polymerization shrinkage. The silorane composite and the group of resin composites, with the presence of high molecular weight dimethacrylate monomers, were created. In this regard, it is of interest to monitor the influence of the matrix changes on the elution of unreacted monomers and the biodegradation of dental resin composites. Materials and methods: This study aimed to assess long-term monomer elution from silorane based (Filtek Silorane LS ) and high molecular weight (Kalore, Venus Diamond) resin composites stored in artificial saliva for 6 mounds. Analysis of monomer elution was performed using high-performance mass spectrometry in combination with ultra-high performance chromatography (HPLC-MS), effects of aging were visualized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Results: Monomers detected in artificial saliva were: Urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) from Kalore and Venus Diamond, 2-isopropyl thioxanthone(ITX) from Kalore, and Lauryl Methacrylate( LMA) from Venus Diamond. No eluted monomers were detected from Filtek Silorane LS. SEM analysis of the surfaces of the materials showed erosion, cracks, and roughing of all studied materials after 6 mounds of aging. Conclusions: Monomer elution is a long process. It starts at 24 hours and continues for some substances for up to 6 months. For some monomers, elution starts after a few days. Despite the lack of extracted products from silorane composite in artificial saliva, SEM shows surface degradation.




Title: PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL EVIDENCES OF SOLANUM NIGRUM: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

Abstract:The plant Solanum nigrum Linn which belongs to Solanacea family, commonly called as black night shade in English, Mako in Urdu, Manattakkali in Tamil and Kalukammeriya in Sinhala. It is distributed throughout tropical and temperate regions of the world. It possess various compounds like flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, terpenoids, proteins, carbohydrates, acetic compounds, resin. It does not have sterols, steroids and anthraquinones which are responsible for its diverse activities. Numerous preclinical investigations identified a variety of potential health benefits, including Hepatoprotective activity, Nephroprotective activity, Anti-diabetic activity, Anti-inflammatory activity, Anti-cancer or Anti tumour activity, Anti-oxidant activity, Antimicrobial activity, Antihyperlipidemic activity. Further human studies needed to find the safety and efficacy of Mako.